Geographic tongue is a map-like appearance of your tongue due to irregular patches on its surface.
Patches on the tongue; Tongue - patchy; Benign migratory glossitis; Glossitis - benign migratory
The specific cause of geographic tongue is unknown, although vitamin B deficiency may be involved. Other causes may include irritation from hot or spicy foods, or alcohol. The condition appears to be less common in smokers.
The pattern on the surface of the tongue may change very rapidly. This pattern change occurs when there is a loss of the tiny, finger-like projections, called papillae, on the tongue's surface. This makes areas of the tongue flat. These areas are said to be "denuded." Denuded areas may persist for more than a month.
Your doctor will usually diagnose this condition by examining your tongue. Tests are usually not needed.
No treatment is needed, but antihistamine gel or steroid mouth rinses may help with discomfort.
Geographic tongue is a harmless condition, but it can be persistent and uncomfortable.
Call your doctor if the symptoms last longer than 10 days. Seek immediate medical help if:
Avoid irritating your tongue with hot or spicy food or alcohol if you are prone to this condition.
Reamy BV, Derby R, Bunt CW. Common tongue conditions in primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(5):627-634.
Mirowski GW, Mark LA. Oral disease and oral-cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal and liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2010:chap 22.