The placenta is the link between you and your baby. When the placenta does not work as well as it should, your baby can get less oxygen and nutrients from you. As a result, your baby may:
Placental dysfunction; Uteroplacental vascular insufficiency; Oligohydramnios
The placenta may not work as well due to pregnancy problems or habits in the mother, such as:
Certain medications can also increase the risk of placenta insufficiency.
In some cases, the placenta:
A woman with placental insufficiency usually does not have any symptoms.
The health care provider will measure the size of your growing womb (uterus) at each visit, starting about halfway through your pregnancy.
If your uterus is not growing as expected, a pregnancy ultrasound will be done. This test will measure your baby's size and growth, and assess the size and placement of the placenta.
Other times, problems with the placenta or your baby's growth may be found on a routine ultrasound that is done during your pregnancy.
Either way, your doctor will order tests to check how your baby is doing. The tests may show that your baby is active and healthy, and the amount of amniotic fluid is normal. Or, these tests can show that the baby is having problems.
If there is a problem with the placenta, you and your doctor must decide whether to induce labor.
You may be asked to keep a daily record of how often the baby moves or kicks.
The next steps your doctor will take depend on:
If your pregnancy is less than 37 weeks and the tests show that your baby is not under too much stress, your doctor may decide to wait longer. Sometimes you may need to get increased rest on your side. You will have tests often to make sure your baby is doing well. Treating high blood pressure or diabetes may also help improve the baby's growth.
If your pregnancy is over 37 weeks or tests show your baby is not doing well, your doctor may want to deliver your baby. He or she may induce labor, or you may need a c-section.
Problems with the placenta can affect the developing baby's growth. The baby cannot grow and develop normally in the womb if it does not get enough oxygen and nutrients.
When this occurs, it is called intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This increases the chances of complications during pregnancy and delivery.
Getting prenatal care early in pregnancy will help make sure that the mother is as healthy as possible during the pregnancy.
Smoking, alcohol, and other illicit drugs can interfere with the baby's growth. Avoiding these substances may help prevent placental insufficiency and other pregnancy complications.
Baschat AA, Galan HL, Ross MG, Gabbe SG. Intrauterine growth restriction. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap.31.
Grivell RM, Wong L, Bhatia V. Regimens of fetal surveillance for impaired fetal growth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1):CD007113.
Farinelli CK, Wing DA. Abnormal labor and induction of labor. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap.14.