A surgical abortion is a procedure that ends a pregnancy by removing the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus).
There are different types of surgical abortion.
Sometimes the woman needs the procedure for a health reason. This is called a therapeutic abortion.
Other times, she chooses (elects) to end the pregnancy. This is called an elective abortion.
See also: Miscarriage
Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical
A surgical abortion uses a vacuum to remove the fetus and related material from a woman's uterus (womb). The procedure is usually done 6 weeks after the woman's last menstrual period
You may receive medicine (sedative) to help you relax and feel sleepy. The doctor may numb the cervix so you feel little pain during the procedure.
If the surgical abortion is done after 12 weeks of pregnancy, the doctor must first open (dilate) the cervical canal. Small sticks called laminaria are placed into the cervix to help it open. Sometimes, this is done a day or two before the actual abortion procedure. Next, the doctor inserts a hollow tube into the womb before using the vacuum to remove the pregnancy-related tissues from the womb.
Medicines may be given to help the uterine muscles contract. This reduces bleeding.
There are several reasons a surgical abortion might be considered:
The decision to end a pregnancy is very personal. Most health care providers recommend careful counseling before making such a decision.
Abortion is a controversial issue. A woman who chooses to end a pregnancy may feel she cannot share her decision with others. Therefore, it is important for her to identify those who may help her through what may be a difficult time.
Women who are trying to make this difficult decision should find a safe place in which they can obtain counseling regarding all options for pregnancy resolution.
If a woman chooses to have an abortion, she should find a safe place to have the procedure performed and obtain the proper support and follow-up care afterwards.
Risks of surgical abortion include:
The risks of surgical abortion increase as a woman gets further along in her pregnancy. That's why it's important to make a decision about abortion as early as possible, when the procedure is safest.
The risks for any anesthesia are:
The risks for any surgery are:
Call your health care provider if you have had a surgical abortion and you have:
Complications rarely occur. Most women who have a surgical abortion in an appropriate medical center recover without any physical complications.
Some women may need psychological and emotional support at the time of their procedure. It may be helpful to seek counseling before making this very difficult decision.
Physical recovery usually occurs within a few days, depending on the stage of the pregnancy. A small amount of vaginal bleeding and mild uterine cramping should be expected for a few days.
A hot bath or use of a heating pad or hot water bottle on the abdomen may help relieve discomfort. Strenuous activity should be avoided for a few days following an abortion. Tampons may be used after 3 days. Sexual intercourse should be avoided for 2 to 3 weeks. A normal menstrual period should occur 4 to 6 weeks after the operation.
It's important to begin using birth control immediately after the abortion procedure. It is possible to get pregnant again even before having a normal menstrual period. Improved methods of contraception can help prevent many unplanned pregnancies. However, unplanned pregnancies occur even when couples use birth control. See also: Emergency contraception
Mischell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 14.
Simpson JL, Jauniaux ERM. Pregnancy loss. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 24.
Annas GJ, Elias S. Legal and ethical issues in obstetric practice. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 51.