A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the normally clear fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord.
Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture
A sample of CSF is needed. This is usually done with a lumbar puncture. For information on how this procedure is performed, see spinal tap.
The sample is sent to the laboratory, where it is placed in a special dish (called a culture medium). The laboratory personnel watch to see if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means there is an infection.
For information on how to prepare for the procedure to obtain the CSF sample, see spinal tap.
For information on how it will feel to have a sample of CSF fluid removed, see spinal tap.
Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of an infection that affects the brain or nervous system. The test will help identify what is causing the infection. This will help your doctor decide on the best treatment.
A normal result means no bacteria, viruses, or fungi grew in the laboratory dish. This is called a negative result.
If bacteria are present, you may have bacterial meningitis. Other possible infections include tuberculosis and fungal infections. Some bacteria or viruses can also be detected using special tests.
Finding bacteria does not necessarily mean the infection is contagious, unless it is meningococcal meningitis.
A laboratory culture poses no risk to you. For risks from the procedure done to get a CSF sample, see spinal tap.
Griggs RC, Jozefowicz RF, Aminoff MJ. Approach to the patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 403.
Swartz MN, Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 420.