A cytology examination of pleural fluid is a laboratory test to detect cancerous cells in the pleural space, the area that surrounds the lungs.
See: Cytologic evaluation
Pleural fluid cytology
A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. For information on how the sample is obtained, see: Thoracentesis.
The fluid sample is sent to a laboratory where it is examined under the microscope to determine what the cells look like, and whether they are abnormal. "Cytology" refers to the study of cells.
The laboratory test requires no preparation. For information on how to prepare for removal of the fluid sample, see: Thoracentesis
A cytology exam is used to look for cancer and precancerous cells. Your doctor may order a cytology examination of pleural fluid if you have signs of fluid buildup in the pleural space, a condition called pleural effusion. The test may also be done if you have signs of lung cancer.
Normal cells are seen.
In an abnormal test, there are cancerous (malignant) cells. This may mean there is a cancerous tumor. This test most often detects:
There are no risks involved with a cytology exam.
For information risks related to the procedure to remove a sample of pleural fluid, see: Thoracentesis
Celli BR. Diseases of the diaphragm, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 100.