Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). This means chlamydia is passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
Chlamydia is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Both males and females may have chlamydia without having any symptoms. As a result, you may become infected or pass the infection to your partner without knowing it.
You are more likely to become infected with chlamydia if you:
Only some women with chlamydia have symptoms. Symptoms may include:
If you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, your health care provider will collect a culture or perform a test called a PCR:
Even if you have no symptoms, you may need a chlamydia test if you:
Chlamydia can be treated with the antibiotics azithromycin, tetracyclines, quinolones, or erythromycin. Erythromycin and azithromycin are safe if you are pregnant. You and your partner should finish all of your antibiotics, even if you feel better. Common side effects of these antibiotics include nausea, upset stomach, and diarrhea.
All of your sexual partners must be treated, even if they do not have symptoms. This will prevent you from passing the infection back and forth.
Because gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia, treatment for gonorrhea is often given at the same time.
Antibiotic treatment almost always works if you and your partner take the medicines as directed.
If chlamydia spreads into your uterus, it can cause scarring and make it harder for you to get pregnant. You can help prevent this by:
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if symptoms of chlamydia occur.
Geisler WM. Diseases caused by chlamydiae. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 326.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for chlamydial infection: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:128-134.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(RR-12):1-110.